Fibrous materials are an integral part of our day to day. Due to technological innovations in several fields, including chemistry, materials and nanotechnology, it has been possible to broaden these materials´ range of applications. They have truly become engineering materials with significant advantages over conventional materials such as steel, wood, or ceramics. Their applications cover several sectors, such as healthcare, construction, arquitecture, transportation and personal protection.


Fibrous structures can be classified in several different ways, considering different factors such as production technique, among others. Therefore they can be grouped into woven.... In the case of more technical applications, the more adequate classification mostly considers the fibers´ orientation in the structure. Fibrous structures can then be classified as:
  • conventional structures (2D);
  • 3D structures;
  • directionally oriented structures;
  • hybrid structures.